Diabetes mellitus is a group of endocrine diseases developing because of an absolute or relative deficit of hormone of insulin.
Not enough digestion of carbohydrates arrives with nutrition because of dysfunction of pancreas. The carbohydrates processed by an organism into glucose. They don`t digest because of insufficient insulin release. They cumulate in large numbers in blood and they are excreted with kidneys into urine.
It leads to accumulation of a large amount of toxiferous substances capable to cause extremely dangerous self-poisoning of an organism and a diabetic coma.
The reasons of a diabetes mellitus are: improper feeding (excessive amount of sweet), psychological experiences and stress, genetic predisposition, serious illness, poor conditions of life, hard work, abnormal liver function and so forth.
I. Diabetes mellitus of the 1st type or "juvenile diabetes", however, people of any age can be ill (the destruction of β-cells leading to development of an absolute lifelong insulin insufficiency):
- Autoimmune, including LADA;
II. Diabetes mellitus of the 2nd type
MODY — genetic defects of function of β-cells.
III. Other forms of Diabetes:
- genetic defects (anomalies) of insulin and/or its receptors;
- diseases of an exocrine part of pancreas;
- endocrine diseases (endocrinopathies): Itsenko— Cushing syndrome, acromegalia, diffuse toxic struma, pheochromocytoma and others;
- diabetes mellitus induced by drugs;
- diabetes mellitus induced by infections;
- unusual forms of immunely mediated diabetes mellitus;
- genetic syndromes which are combined with a diabetes mellitus.
IV. Gestational diabetes mellitus is pathological state which is characterized by the hyperglycemia arising at pregnancy and usually spontaneously disappearing after the delivery.
Classification by disease severity
1. Mild disease
2. Medium severity
3. Severe acute disease
Classification by complications
1. Diabetic micro and macrovascular disease.
2. Diabetic neuropathy.
3. Diabetic retinopathy.
4. Diabetic nephropathy.
5. Diabetic foot.
Symptoms of diabetes
Symptoms of diabetes of the first type are: thirst, frequent urination, loss of weight, dryness in a mouth, irritability, fast fatigability, nausea, sometimes vomiting.
Minor symptoms of diabetes of this type are: heartaches, gastrocnemius muscle pains and cramps in them, furunculosis, dermal itch, headaches, irritability and sleep disorders.
In case of such symptoms, a patient should urgently have tests which will help estimate level of glucose in blood and in urine.
Today therapy of diabetes mellitus in most cases is symptomatic, it is referred on elimination of the symptoms. Compensation of carbohydrate metabolism, normalization of body weight of the patient, prophylaxis, treatment of appearing complications are the main objectives of an endocrinologist in this case.
Application therapy has to be applied taking into account skin state. It is very important to avoid damage of skin.
It is recommended to use applicators with a smaller step, for example: 3,5 mm, 4,9 mm, 5.0 mm or apply them through fine fabric or gauze laying. Ii is possible to use insoles as there are still additional restrictive rollers which help to avoid skin damage.
Zones of applications: main 5, 6; additional 16, 17; auxiliary 1, 2, 23.
The following applicators are recommended to apply on main and additional zones:
1. "Camomile M" is applied in a prone position on zones 5, 6 or 16, 17 on area of a stomach.
2. "Quadro" with step 4,9 mm is applied along a backbone with capture of zones 5,6 or across a back on zones 5, 6; on area of a stomach on zones 16,17.
4. "Chance" is used along or across a backbone on zones 5, 6 or on area of a stomach on zones 16, 17.
5. “Insole plus” is applied along or across a backbone on zones 5, 6 or 16,17 on the forward surface of a thorax.
6. The Kid belt is fixed across a backbone on zone 5, along a backbone on zones 5,6 or it is applied in a prone position (as an ordinary applicator) on zones 5,6.
7. The Universal M belt is fixed on a trunk on zones 5, 6 and at the same time on zones 16,17 on a stomach and it is also applied in a prone position as an ordinary applicator on zones 5, 6.
8. Big Roller, Uuiversal M roller, Facial roller M or MK, the roller front MK are used to effect through fabric on zones 5, 6, 16, 17.
The following applicators are recommended for auxiliary zones:
1. Belt "Magic tape "Health" 1 band, 1p +1p 5-7-9 segments is used for hands wounding: zones 21, 23, 25, zones 29, 31 on legs.
2. Big Roller, Uuiversal M roller, Facial roller M or MK, the roller front MK are used to effect through fabric on zone 23 on hands; zones 29, 31 on legs.
3. “Insole plus” is applied on zone 31.
If it is necessary to effect back area, lay on stomach, place an applicator on back and put a bag with sand on it. To enhance the galvanizing effect put gauze pads dampened with water or analginum under the applicator. Feelings need to be comfortable, painless, time of application is no more than 20-30 minutes.
At mild stage diabetes the multi-needle therapy actually stabilizes blood glucose levels. At insulin-dependent forms the application complements the insulin therapy, enabling to reduce insulin doses under the control of glucose levels in the blood, and after consulting a doctor. At achrestic forms applications are good addition to insulin therapy, but depression of doses of insulin is possible only after control of level of glucose in blood and after doctor`s advice.
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